Andy Lloyd's

Dark Star Blog

 

   

Blog 47   (February 2017)

(Currently being written)

  News, links, videos and comment   relating to the Dark Star Theory 

 

 

 

 

 

The Lost Oceans of Venus

Water is a common component of the solar system.  It is increasingly turning up in places which were hitherto considered to be arid places - Mars, the Moon, various moons.  There is a conflict between the initial general availability of water in the proto-solar nebula, which implies the universal presence of water across the early solar system, and the action of the Sun and its solar wind to drive it away.  The electric field conditions in the space enveloping planets plays a significant part in gradually stripping away the upper layers of atmosphere (1), with lighter gaseous molecules (like hydrogen) more likely to be driven away than heavier gaseous molecules (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapour).  As hydrogen is increasingly lost from planetary atmospheres over time, the capacity for water to be formed chemically is lowered. Inevitably, planets in the inner solar system dry out.

Which makes the abundant presence of water on the surface of the Earth something of a mystery.  It seems at odds with the arid nature of its neighbours (although, as noted, the presence of water ice on these other worlds is often more significant than previously thought).  For many years, the dominant argument to explain this was the later veneer theory, whereby the planets were constantly re-supplied with water by the impact of comets, which were perceived as being dirty snowballs hurtling around the solar system. 

That theory has been in jeopardy for a while now.  Firstly, comets do not appear to be the huge repositories of water ice that they were once assumed to be (instead, they appear more like asteroids, which 'outgas' volatiles from largely internal icy stores when heated by the Sun, during their perihelion passages).  Secondly, with the exception of comet 103P/Hartley 2 (2), the isotopic composition of the water of comets from the outer solar system unexpectedly bears little resemblance to the Earth's water (3).  Instead, the Earth's water more closely resembles that and water ice on objects found in the asteroid belt, and inner solar system (4, 5).

The ratio of regular hydrogen to deuterium (the heavier, neutron-bearing form of hydrogen) varies according to the mix and origin of the water.  So, as hydrogen is stripped away from a planet, the lighter form is driven away more easily than the heavier form.  Over time, what is left is an increasingly heavy mix.  This deuterium-to-hydrogen (D/H) ratio can provide clues to the origin of water, for the various bodies of the solar system, and how they interact.

The complex picture that has emerged over the last few decades has been the subject of many of my articles (6, 7). That's because I consider it to offer strong evidence for an alternative origin for the Earth.  My colleague Lee Covino and I noted some years ago that the ability to roughly place solar system objects into zones according to their D/H ratios might help to prove that the Earth began its life where the asteroid belt is now.  This would be consistent with Zecharia Sitchin's theory about the intrusion of a rogue planet into the early solar system, the result of which was a cataclysmic event which caused the Earth to substantially migrate inwards (8).  We predicted, based upon this hypothesis, that the Earth's waters would share a common composition with those of the asteroids (6).  And so it has been largely proven since.

A recent scientific paper considered the extent to which water was available on the young planet Venus.  Based upon the D/H ratio of water in the Venusian atmosphere, it has been known for some time that there must have been substantial amounts of water during the early life of the planet Venus.  The question is how long did it hold onto that ocean, and at what point did the runaway greenhouse effect transform Earth's sister world into the hellish place it is today?  According to the results of the latest computer simulations (which take into account the planet's strangely slow rotation, topography and atmospheric composition), the answer is that Venus may have maintained its ocean up until a relatively short time ago (9):

"Venus has a deuterium-to-hydrogen (D/H) ratio that is 150 ± 30 times that of terrestrial water but is currently a parched world... The D/H ratio implies that Venus has lost substantial quantities of water over its history, but it is unclear when and at what rate. When continuing exogenous and endogenous sources are included, the primordial value is very poorly determined. However, modern formation models indicate a great deal of mixing among terrestrial planet protoplanets [citing 10], strongly suggesting that Venus and Earth did not form with 5 orders of magnitude difference in water inventory." (11)

One thing's clear - the early inner solar system had a lot more water than it does now, with both Mars and Venus having had oceans.  In Venus' case, the water was stripped away.  Perhaps the same with Mars, or perhaps it's still there under the regolith.  But Sitchin was right - these were watery worlds, and whether Earth started in its current location or in the asteroid belt, it seems likely then that it too had much greater quantities of water.   Sitchin described the primordial Earth as being a larger, more watery world - in the Babylonian cosmic myth, she took the form of the watery monster Tiamat, which was rendered in two by the usurper god Marduk (8).  It seems as though Venus, too, was a habitable world at that time, and possibly far more amenable to life than our own relatively frigid world.

 

Written by Andy Lloyd,  5th February 2017

References:

1)  Bill Steigerwald ‘Electric Wind’ Can Strip Earth-like Planets of Oceans, Atmospheres" 20th June 2016 https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2016/electric-wind-can-strip-earth-like-planets-of-oceans-atmospheres

2) Paul Hartogh et al "Ocean-like water in the Jupiter-family comet 103P/Hartley 2" Nature, 13th October 2011, 478, 218-220, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v478/n7368/fig_tab/nature10519_F2.html

3)  ESA "Rosetta Fuels Debate on Origin of Earth's Oceans" 10th December 2016 http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Rosetta/Rosetta_fuels_debate_on_origin_of_Earth_s_oceans

4)  Linda Martel "Water, Carbonaceous Chondrites, and Earth" July 2012 http://www.psrd.hawaii.edu/CosmoSparks/July12/Earthwater-sources.html

5)  Conel Alexander et al "The Provenances of Asteroids, and Their Contributions to the Volatile Inventories of the Terrestrial Planets", Science, 10th August 2012, v. 337 (6095), p. 721-723, http://science.sciencemag.org/content/337/6095/721

6)  Andy Lloyd "The Great Water Conundrum" from 2002 onwards http://www.darkstar1.co.uk/water.html

7)  Andy Lloyd "Earth's Primordial Waters" 24th November 2015 http://www.andylloyd.org/darkstarblog32.htm

8)  Zecharia Sitchin "The Twelfth Planet" Avon Books, 1976

9)  Michael Cabbage & Leslie McCarthy "NASA climate modeling suggests Venus may have been habitable" 11th August 2016 http://climate.nasa.gov/news/2475/nasa-climate-modeling-suggests-venus-may-have-been-habitable/

10)  Morbidelli, A., et al (2012), "Building terrestrial planets", Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 40, 251–275, http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-earth-042711-105319

11)  Michael Way et al "Was Venus the First Habitable World of our Solar System?" Geophysical Research Letters, 28th August 2016, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL069790/full

 

Image credit:  NASA/Goddard/Conceptual Image Lab, Krystofer Kim

 

 

 

 

 

 

The watery world Tiamat faces the incoming planet Nibiru/Marduk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Enoch's Vision of the Dark Star System

I've been reading Nick Redfern's latest book, entitled 'Immortality of the Gods' (1).  It's quite Sitchinite in content in places, with plenty of references to the Anunnaki and their great longevity.  During the course of his analysis of ancient texts, and their allusion to the immortality of the gods, Redfern re-prints a translation from the apocryphal Book of Enoch, describing the Biblical patriarch's flight (through space?) with a band of angels, including Uriel.  Part of that passage seems to me to describe their visit upon the Dark Star system, in the outer reaches of our solar system.  I've described this before, a long time ago, but want to highlight this passage once again as it has an added importance in recent times:

"I proceeded to where things were chaotic.  And I saw there something horrible: I saw neither a heaven above nor a firmly founded earth, but a place chaotic and horrible.  And there I saw seven stars of the heaven bound together in it, like great mountains and burning with fire.  Then I said: 'For what sin are they bound, and on what account have they been cast in hither?' 

"Then said Uriel, one of the holy angels, who was with me, and was chief over them, and said: 'Enoch, why does thou ask, and why art thou eager for the truth?  These are of the number of stars, which have transgressed the commandment of the Lord, and are bound here till ten thousand years, the time entailed by their sins, are consummated'"  (2)

The Book of Enoch contains a great many astronomical references and secrets.  I've argued before that these seven stars/mountains are the planets of the Dark Star system, probably including the fiery Dark Star itself (a sub-brown dwarf).  The torrid, chaotic environment of that place alludes, I believe, to the way it is wrapped up into a dark nebula of dust, gas, and interstellar medium, as I've described in recent blog posts (3,4), and in a science paper I wrote last year (5) which aimed at solving the inexplicable lack of a direct sighting of the proposed Planet Nine object (6). 

Given the red glow of the Dark Star emanating from within this dense, localised gas cloud (which is blown back by the galactic wind to provide the quintessential Winged Disk appearance of the system), and its fiery reflection upon the inner planets orbiting it, then one can readily appreciate the description provided in the Book of Enoch. 

Additionally, the passage from The Book of Enoch discusses a timeframe of ten thousand years.  I would suggest that this alludes to the period of time which has yet to pass before the Dark Star system returns to its perihelion position.  The first passages of the non-canonical Book of Enoch (known as the Book of the Watchers) was probably penned around 300 BCE, but is likely based upon oral accounts from centuries, if not millennia before that. 

It would be foolish to try to calculate timings from this, but certainly suggests that ten thousand years represents a fraction of total orbital period of the Dark Star system.  One may imply, then, that the full extent of its eccentric orbit may by between ten and twenty thousand years, or perhaps more.  This is in line with estimates for Planet Nine, whose existence has been inferred indirectly from its perturbing effect upon a cluster of anomalously extended (or scattered) Kuiper Belt Objects (6).

 

Written by Andy Lloyd,  11th February 2017

References:

1) Nick Redfern "Immortality of the Gods" New Page Books, 2017, p43, 'Immortality of the Gods' by Nick Redfern

2) R.H. Charles (Translator) "The Book of Enoch" 1912

3)  Andy Lloyd "Dust in the Winged" 23rd June 2016, http://andy-lloyd.com/dust-in-the-winged/

4) Andy Lloyd "Interstellar Planet Formation" 8th-17th July 2016 http://www.andylloyd.org/darkstarblog40.htm

5) Andy Lloyd "The Cumulative Effect of Intermittent Interstellar Medium Inundation Upon Objects In The Outer Solar System" 02/2016, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.5112.5526,https://www.academia.edu/21700220/The_Cumulative_Effect_of_Intermittent_Interstellar_Medium_Inundation_Upon_Objects_In_The_Outer_Solar_System

6)   K. Batygin & M. Brown "Evidence for a Distant Giant Planet in the Solar System" 20th January 2016, The Astronomical Journal, Volume 151, Number 2, http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/0004-6256/151/2/22

 

Flammarion Woodcut 1988

 

 

 

 

An Opportunity to join the Hunt for Planet Nine

NASA have invited budding armchair scientists to join the hunt for Planet Nine (1).  Although a planet thought to be approximately ten times the mass of the Earth is causing otherwise inexplicable changes to the orbits of various distant bodies in the solar system, it has yet to be observed directly. 

One of the mysteries here is why it was not spotted by the infra-red survey, WISE, carried out in 2009-2010.  There is strong indirect evidence for this sizeable Planet X object.  But somehow it has managed to evade detection, even though, all things being equal, it should have shown up fairly easily in the sensitive and wide-ranging WISE survey.  So, what's going on? 

Reading between the lines. it becomes clear that the WISE survey was not as foolproof as we were led to believe.  After the extensive WISE data had been pored over by scientific teams, NASA announced the death of Planet X, as well as possible sub-brown dwarfs in our backyard (2).  Since then, compelling evidence for at least one planet (3) has brought into question the effectiveness of NASA's search.  The appeal for volunteers to trawl through some of the WISE data to pinpoint 'false-positives' indicates that scientists recognise that the computer analyses of the changing sky over time may not have been as thorough as previously claimed.  Sometimes, human observational skills are more effective at spotting anomalies. 

The take-up of the challenge appears to be high, and at the time of writing the work is almost halfway through.  There are no shortage of people wishing to play their part in finding a new planet in the solar system!

There's a possibility that they might also help to find other, larger objects, like sub-brown dwarfs located between Neptune and the nearest local stars:

"Instead of finding the mysterious Planet Nine, it’s entirely possible the armchair astronomers could spot traces of brown dwarfs, strange low-mass projects that emit very little light, but glow with infrared radiation. They measure somewhere between a star and a Jupiter-sized planet in size and could be lurking outside the solar system between Neptune and the nearest star, Proxima Centauri, along with Planet Nine." (2)

'Entirely possible'?  How things have changed in just the last couple of years!  The hunt for local brown dwarfs seems to be very much back on... 

 

Written by Andy Lloyd,  18th February 2017

References:

1)  Marc Kuchner "Backyard Worlds: Planet 9" https://www.zooniverse.org/projects/marckuchner/backyard-worlds-planet-9

2)  Whitney Clavin & J. D. Harrington "NASA's WISE Survey Finds Thousands of New Stars, But No 'Planet X'" 7th March 2014 https://www.nasa.gov/jpl/wise/planet-x-20140307

3)  K. Batygin & M. Brown "Evidence for a Distant Giant Planet in the Solar System" 20th January 2016, The Astronomical Journal, Volume 151, Number 2, http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/0004-6256/151/2/22

4)  Coburn Palmer "Armchair Astronomers help NASA search for mysterious Planet Nine" 16th February 2017 http://www.inquisitr.com/3987984/armchair-astronomers-help-nasa-search-for-mysterious-planet-9/ with thanks to Lee

 

Image credit:  NASA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

New Academic Paper

Last year, I published an article entitled "Nibiru and the Younger Dryas Boundary" on the Dark Star Blog.  The short essay brought together a number of ideas which I presented in Rome that month, at one of the regular conferences organised by Massimo Fratini.  I've referred back to this item a few times now, and commented upon it on various online forums on Facebook, attracting some interest.  Some more ideas have formulated around this over time. 

So, rather than re-hashing old ground on the Blog, I've decided to smarten up and update the essay, and publish it on Academia.edu, where it is now available to download (1).  The newer version begins to explore the possibility that the very ancient archaeological site of Göbekli Tepe, at the edge of the Taurus Mountains in Turkey, was the refuge for survivors of the Flood in the Levant, during the end of the last Ice Age.  The remarkable imagery carved into the monuments there appear to have astronomical motifs, and I believe them to be a warning to later generations describing the appearance of unusual celestial imagery just prior to the catastrophe.

 

Written by Andy Lloyd,  17th February 2017

References:

1)  Andy Lloyd "Planet X and the Younger Dryas Boundary" 16th February 2017 https://www.academia.edu/31461847/Planet_X_and_the_Younger_Dryas_Boundary

 

 

 

Update on The Red Star of Ruin

Following on from last month's blog item entitled, 'The Red Star of Ruin', I received this fascinating email which I have permission to share with my readers:

Hi Andy,

               I caught your 2015 interview with Kerry Cassidy tonight. I don't know how I'd previously missed it but she mentioned it a week or so ago, to someone else she was talking to. Although this is not really my area or subject matter (at least not from a technical viewpoint), I've been interested in the Nibiru story since I discovered it around 2001 and I have noticed, of late, a lot of very recent photo and video footage by various amateur astronomers, showing what appears to be the same anomaly that you spoke of; that being shots of the sun with a secondary light source to one side of it. Therefore, when Kerry Cassidy mentioned your interview I wanted to check it out. I went to your site afterwards and had a skim through your latest blog. After reading the "Red Star of Ruin" I think I might have a tiny piece of the puzzle for you to slip in there. 
 

          It seems that you can't nail down an origin for this story.  In 1998 I was researching a lot conspiracy stuff with the intention of writing a screenplay. It got finished but never saw the light of day as a film, although I did eventually release it as an album. I read a lot of books on many subjects, one of which was 'The Head of God' by Kieth Laidler.  Laidler was, apparently, the chief researcher for David Attenborough during one of his TV series (the secret life of plants I think), so he knows how to research information. The book was about the head of Jesus and/or that of John the Baptist, being removed after death and preserved in an Ivory box that was kept in the Ark of the Covenant and found by the Templars under the ruins of Solomon's Temple.  A lot of his research was about the Cult of the Severed Head in Egypt, a cult of which Jesus is supposed to have been a member during his "wilderness years".  In telling his story he points out that Akenahten, for reasons that escape my memory, got wind that he was in danger of being assassinated along with his daughter Scota.  Plans were made for her to get out of Egypt and she took off with her entourage, taking with her a large marble or granite throne. They made their way to the Med, into Spain, then the south of France, through France to Normandy, across to Cornwall, into Wales and finally across the Irish sea to Ireland where they settled.  The throne was deposited in the north of the country and became the throne on which the subsequent Kings of Ireland were crowned and is, if Laidler is correct, the real Stone of Scone and not the Scottish brick that was kept in London for all those years.  Leaving behind a large Egyptian contingent, Scota eventually went across the sea where she became the the ruler of the land to which she gave her name, Scotland. He also points out that the predominant red hair of the Irish and the Scots is a direct result of interbreeding between the Egyptians and the locals.
 

            Given that the Egyptians are said to have had a good knowledge of the Stars and their movement, it's not unreasonable to assume that this story of the Red Star of Ruin came directly from those that had scientific knowledge of Nibiru.

I hope you find this helpful.


Dave.

Correspondence received 5th February 2017

Dave's music website www.arnwyn.com

 

The Scottish Stone of Scone

 

 

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